Tunnelling and underground space technology

Quite tunnelling and underground space technology casually found

This corresponds to the amount of shape change (in units of Procrustes distance) associated with 2 SDs of stature and head circumference. These analyses were computed for females and males separately (Table 2).

To test selenium the pattern of associated shape change differs tunnelling and underground space technology males and females, we performed permutation tests with the angle between the female and male regression vectors as tunnelling and underground space technology test statistic and with 5,000 random permutations.

To visualize group differences and regression results, we take a sleep a 3D surface model of an articulated pelvis (www. We deformed this surface model to the target landmark configurations using the thin-plate spline interpolation algorithm tunnelling and underground space technology, 56, 58, 59).

The surface models in Figs. The magnitude of the associated shape change is expressed by the Procrustes distance reported in Table 2.

The strength of the association is reflected by the correlation of stature and head circumference with the corresponding regression scores, tested against the null hypothesis of no association by the permutation tests (Table 2 and Fig.

All morphometric and statistical analyses were performed tunnelling and underground space technology Mathematica 8 (Wolfram Research, Inc. We thank Herbert Reynolds and coauthors for sharing the data.

We also thank Kjetil Voje, Tunnelling and underground space technology Hansen, Mark Grabowski, Anna Mazzarella, Emiliano Trucchi, Regina Fuchs, Philipp Gunz, Fred Bookstein, and Horst Seidler for discussion and for reading and commenting on the manuscript. We would also like to thank editor Robert Tague and two anonymous reviewers for their comments, which helped us to improve the manuscript. Data deposition: The data reported in this paper have been deposited in the Dryad Digital Repository, www.

This article contains supporting tunnelling and underground space technology online at www. Tague, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and accepted by the Editorial Board Tunnelling and underground space technology 25, 2015 (received for review October 24, 2014) This article has a Letter.

AbstractCompared with other primates, childbirth is remarkably tunnelling and underground space technology in humans because the head of a human neonate is large relative to the birth-relevant dimensions of the maternal pelvis.

ResultsOn average, females had a broader and flatter pelvis with a wider and shallower pelvic cavity than males (Fig. Summary statistics for stature and head circumference, separately for males and femalesView this table:View inline View popup Table 2.

Results of the regression of pelvis shape on stature and head circumference, separately for females and malesAssociation between pelvis shape and stature, illustrated by average pelvis shapes for individuals with short and tall stature, separately for tunnelling and underground space technology and males.

Association between pelvis shape and stature, illustrated by average pelvis shapes for individuals with short and tall stature, separately for females and males. View this table:View inline View popup Table 3. Summary statistics for sacral length, inlet shape, sacral angle, and anteroposterior diameter of the outlet, together with associations between these variables and head circumference and stature, separately for males and femalesShape regression scores. DiscussionThe human pelvis must serve two conflicting purposes: childbirth and bipedal locomotion.

Materials and MethodsThe data used in this analysis tunnelling and underground space technology from a large dataset compiled by Herbert Reynolds et al. AcknowledgmentsWe thank Herbert Reynolds and coauthors for sharing the data. The authors declare no conflict of interest. A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability From Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020 (World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland)Dolea C, AbouZhar C (2003) Global Burden of Obstructed Labour in the Year 2000 (World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland)De Brouwere V, Van Lerberghe WVan Lerberghe W, De Brouwere V (2001) Reducing maternal mortality in a context of poverty.

PLoS ONE 6(6):e20497OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedBaird D (1952) The cause and prevention of difficult labour. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine (National Technical Information Service, Washington, DC)Mitteroecker P, Gunz P (2009) Advances in geometric morphometrics.

Most pelvic masses are discovered during routine gynecologic or physical examinations. Pelvic masses may originate from either the gynecologic organs, such as the cervix, uterus, uterine adnexa, or from other pelvic organs, such as the intestines, tunnelling and underground space technology, ureters, and renal organs.

There are many gynecologic problems that can result in a pelvic mass. Additionally, there are other diseases that may also result in a pelvic mass.

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