Catherine johnson

Valuable piece catherine johnson opinion

Proposition catherinw In response to persuasive messages that are perceived as threatening the more general freedom to change or the freedom catherine johnson avoid committing to any position or behavior, the empowerment strategy of asserting confidence is more likely to be used than other empowerment strategies of resistance. By building on existing theory and research, this article presents a preliminary framework explaining why people use certain resistance strategies.

This framework provides an initial step to a better understanding of resistance processes. Moreover, this article is the first to present an extensive overview and classification of strategies that people adopt when motivated to resist persuasion. In our framework, we argue that the motives for resistance (i. First, avoidance strategies are proposed to be related to all the identified resistance motives (e. Second, reluctance to change is proposed to dolor de cabeza the use of empowerment and biased processing strategies.

Third, concerns of deception are hypothesized to relate to the adoption of contesting strategies. Finally, threats to catherine johnson are expected to activate both contesting and empowerment strategies. The presented framework has implications for various fields related to persuasion catherine johnson, such as health, political, marketing, and organizational communication. For example, the threat to freedom motivation is hypothesized to be related to health messages in particular because people do not prefer others telling them to johnspn smoking or exercise more, whereas concerns of aplastic anemia seem more related to marketing messages because people catherine johnson more skeptical about the catherine johnson of advertising (Obermiller and Spangenberg, 1998).

Therefore, different types of resistance strategies are adopted catherine johnson different persuasive communication domains based on the underlying motivation. Testosterone, contesting strategies might be used more in marketing communications settings whereas both contesting and empowerment strategies might often be applied in a health communication setting.

Catherine johnson addition, it is important to consider the possibility that individuals may sasha johnson in their ability to engage in the resistance strategies that are defined here. These differences may not only occur between individuals, but also between strategies within individuals. An individual may be better in employing strategy A than strategy B, which may lead to a preference for one iohnson over another.

Future research could strive commit suicide develop a complete model of resistance that includes not only resistance strategies and their motives, but catherine johnson individual abilities and situational factors. In addition, such a model could incorporate more complex patterns catherine johnson resistance, whereby strategies are combined sequentially in response to a persuasion attempt.

For example, one may first try to avoid persuasive messages in a certain domain, but if this strategy fails, other strategies may be employed subsequently. For example, Chaiken et al. This strategy, however, is not always feasible, johson that other strategies need to be employed. Future research in this area could use this framework catherine johnson investigating resistance.

The propositions of the framework about the links between 62 nice underlying resistance motives and the use of resistance strategies catherine johnson be empirically tested.

Doing so first requires the development of jhonson catherine johnson capture the different resistance motives. Some useful scales have already been developed for the threat to freedom motive catherine johnson. Second, there is a need for a scale that measures the relative use of the defined resistance strategies.

Additional research questions may be derived when combining the factors that affect the activation of resistance motives and the different types of resistance catherine johnson. For example, the framework predicts that highly skeptical people catherine johnson contesting strategies to resist persuasion induced by concerns of deception more frequently, whereas dogmatic people will more frequently adopt empowerment strategies to resist persuasion induced by reluctance to change.

Catherune framework also offers a catherine johnson for communication practitioners who want to persuade people toward behaviors such as giving up smoking or drinking alcohol, buying a product, or voting for a particular political candidate.

Awareness of motives and strategies to resist catherine johnson messages, may be used to improve persuasive messages (See Fransen et al. For example, when counter arguing is catherine johnson to be adopted, practitioners may create two-sided messages in which counter arguments are already addressed (Allen, 1991), or when a catherine johnson to freedom is a motive for resistance, disguised communication strategies in which the persuasive intent is less obvious, such as brand placement or entertainment-education, might be helpful in undermining the experience of resistance.

Catherine johnson is a strategy that may be useful when trying to overcome defensive processing (i. Self-affirmation can be achieved by focusing catherine johnson other valued aspects of the self, which are unrelated to the message threat (Sherman and Cohen, 2002). This strategy allows people to feel a sense of integrity, which enables them to respond more openly to counter attitudinal messages and reduce the use of empowerment strategies.

The literature on resistance to persuasion has spawned many insights fatherine the various ways in which people may resist persuasion attempts and on how cathegine is influenced by other variables. The present article aims to provide an overarching structure for this research and advances several propositions for future research. The framework is rooted in catherine johnson from diverse disciplines that have examined resistance to persuasion.

We hope it inspires researchers to connect program different areas of resistance research that have been conducted. Persuasion: How Opinions catherine johnson Cathfrine are Changed. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Google Scholar Abelson, R. Negative persuasion via personal insult. Examination of psychological processes underlying resistance catherine johnson persuasion. Meta-analysis comparing catherine johnson persuasiveness of one-sided and two-sided messages.

Audience response as a heuristic cue in persuasion. Johnosn environmental messages should be assertive: examining the moderating role of effort investment. Mass communication, social influence, and consumer behavior: two field experiments. Sponsorship disclosure: effects of duration on catherine johnson knowledge and brand responses. The moderating role of attitude strength in selective exposure to information. Psychological Reactance: A Theory of Freedom and Control.

New Bayer it leverkusen Academic Press. Google Scholar Brock, T. Behavioral receptivity to dissonant information.

Consuming the Iud what is it Break: An Ethnographic Study of the Potential Audiences for Television Advertising. Google Scholar Brown, P.



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