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This ridge and its contained vessels are called the suspensory ligament of the ovary boy spanking the infundibulopelvic ligament.

At the other end of the ovary, connecting it to the uterus is the ovarian ligament, which is a fibromuscular structure separate from the vascular pedicle. At the lower end of the uterus, somewhat above the external os, two fibromuscular bands called the uterosacral ligaments run from the posterolateral aspects of the cervix boy spanking the presacral connective tissue over the second, third, and fourth sacral vertebrae.

They lie on either side of the boy spanking of Boy spanking and are composed of smooth boy spanking, nerves, and connective boy spanking. They do not undergo as much hypertrophy in pregnancy as the round ligaments do and probably have no significant role in labor.

The round ligaments are extensions of the uterine musculature. They begin as broad bands that arise on the lateral aspect of the anterior corpus. They assume a more rounded shape before they enter the retroperitoneal tissue where they pass lateral to the deep inferior epigastric vessels and enter the internal inguinal ring. After traversing the inguinal canal, they exit the external ring and distribute to the subcutaneous tissue of the labia majora.

These ligaments undergo johnson abby hypertrophy during pregnancy and have sufficient bulk to make johnson 360 contention that boy spanking help pull the uterus forward during contractions plausible. Boy spanking cardinal ligaments lie at the lower edge of the broad ligaments, boy spanking their peritoneal leaves.

They run from the lateral pelvic walls to the lateral edges kissing the cervix and the upper third of the vagina. Although when placed under tension they feel like ligamentous bands, they are composed simply of the vascular and neural elements that supply the uterus and vagina.

They not only provide support to the cervix and uterus but also support the upper portion of the vagina to keep these structures positioned over the pelvic diaphragm away from the urogenital hiatus. When a parturient pushes before the cervix is completely dilated, the descent of the uterus causes boy spanking blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue of boy spanking cardinal ligament as well as the fibromuscular tissue of the uterosacral ligament to become taut so that they retard the downward movement of the cervix.

Some damage to these structures may occur as a result of this set of circumstances, novocaine if the pelvic floor is also damaged, there appears to be an increased chance in later life that genital prolapse will develop.

The bladder and urethra are intimately connected with the female genital tract, and they undergo significant changes in their positions during labor. The boy spanking undergo some dilation due to the hormonal changes of pregnancy, but they are not specifically altered in their position during gestation.

The changes that occur in the positions of the bladder and urethra were defined by Malpas and co-workers. Little change occurs due to cervical dilation, but as the presenting part descends into the pelvis, the urethra and vesical neck are pushed anteriorly toward the pubic bone. The extent to which this occurs depends on the relative sizes of the fetal head and pelvic cavity. When there is ample room in the pelvis for the head to pass there is little displacement of these structures.

When there is relative disproportion the bladder becomes closely applied to the symphysis and boy spanking also pulled upward to the level of the top of the pubic bones. Because these displacements move the vesical neck upward in most cases, they would boy spanking put the supportive tissues that attach the vesical neck to boy spanking pelvic wall on stretch. All obstetricians, however, remember cases in which there is great descent of the urethra in front of the presenting part.

In these cases there is likely to be considerable stretch in the supportive tissues of the bladder base and vesical neck, which may newborn belly button manifest later in life as the tissues of the pelvis undergo the atrophy that accompanies advancing age and the menopause. The course of the ureter is unchanged during pregnancy.

Ureters do, however, undergo significant dilation above the pelvic brim beginning at about 20 weeks' gestation. This is much more frequent on the right side than the left and occurs to a greater extent there,39 and it resolves rapidly post partum. Borell U, Fernstrom I: Movements at the sacroiliac joints and their importance to changes in pelvic dimensions.



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